Top 10 – Characteristics of Business Cycle

Characteristics of Business Cycle-What are Business Cycle Characteristics-What are the Main Characteristics of a Business Cycle

How does the business cycle differ? The business cycle is a wave-like pattern of economic ups and downs that impacts the entire economy of a country and often has effects that extend beyond its borders. characteristics of business cycle will be covered in-depth in this article, along with various examples for your convenience.

A business cycle or economic cycle is the ups and downs of business and economic activity. A business cycle, according to the Corporate Finance Institute, shows how GDP cycles up and down. When an economy experiences rapid growth and contraction, it has reached its “completed business cycle.” While the narrowing reflects a time when the economy fell, the broadening represents a time when it expanded quickly. The key phases of a business cycle are expansion, peak, recession, depression, trough, and recovery.

Top 10 – Characteristics of Business Cycle

The economic cycle can be seen as a series of favorable and unfavorable trading periods in the broadest sense. “A trade cycle consists of times when trade is beneficial, such as when prices are increasing and unemployment is low, and times when trade is bad, such as when prices are falling and unemployment is high,” writes Keynes in his book Treatise on Money. The characteristics of business cycle will be covered in-depth in this article, along with some examples for your convenience. Read more about types of business cycle subject to expand your perspectives.


When a company goes out of business, growth and prosperity stop. Before inflation becomes a problem, the economy can only grow so much. Businesses cut their output and spending during a recession. Since fewer people are placing orders, it may be necessary to let some people go.

Recovery Stage

During a recovery, the economy goes through a change for the better. When prices are low, people buy more. To keep up with rising consumer demand, businesses hire more people and spend more money on materials.

As more people get jobs, the economy keeps getting better. The last part of the business cycle is expansion, which comes after the time of recovery. The characteristics of business cycle can vary depending on the stage of the cycle.

External Factors

Business cycles are blamed on things outside of the economy. Solar flares, wars, revolutions, political changes, the discovery of gold, population growth, migration, new discoveries, and innovations are all examples of external forces.

When these outside factors change the mix of investment and consumption that make up aggregate demand, it changes the national income. For example, sunspots can cause droughts that wipe out crops, which lowers productivity and has effects on consumption and investment.


When sadness lasts for a while, it leads to a new period of growth called the lower turning point. Possible causes or triggers could come from either the outside or the inside. Let’s say the economy needs to spend money on replacing things that people use up.

Demand grows. Rising demand makes people more likely to invest and create jobs. Things are getting better again. The same is true for the capital goods market. It seems like things are getting better.


The business cycle has a big effect on employment in a country. When the economy is doing well, businesses hire more people to meet demand and open new places. But during economic downturns and recessions, unemployment tends to go up, people work less, and wages go down.


After a short period of growth, the economy is now starting to shrink. It marks the moment when forces that pulled things together became stronger than forces that pulled things apart. For example, a drop in prices, a crash in the stock market, or a financial crisis are all external signs. Because costs are higher than prices, companies’ profit margins are getting smaller. Companies stop doing business.

Some of them stop making things or get rid of everything they have. When investment and job growth slow down, demand, income, and consumption also slow down. The characteristics of business cycle can have significant political implications, such as increased government spending during a recession.

Phases of a Business Cycle

The two parts of a normal business cycle are growth and decline. When the economy is growing, the Gross National Product (GNP) grows faster than it has in the past. Gross national product reaches a high point and then starts to go down. One effect of contraction is a drop in economic output.

Process of Business Cycle

There is both a rising tide of motion and a falling tide of motion. As speed goes up, it builds on itself. This will keep going until a combination of things causes a downward shift. The worst depression and stagnation come from a downward trend that keeps going until it is stopped.


Everyone wins when things are going well. In other words, they make prices go up. Prices are going up faster than wages, salaries, interest rates, rents, and taxes. The difference between what something sells for and how much it costs to make is a profit booster. When profits go up and people think they will keep going up, stock prices go up quickly.

There is a lot of hope on the market. Bank loans are easier to get, which helps with capital spending and expected returns. Fixed capital, plant, equipment, and machinery are some of the most common types of investments. They make more people want and pay more for consumer goods, which helps the economy grow.

Depression or Trough

Less activity is a feature of the ecological trough or depression. Income, employment, output, prices, and other economic indicators all go down. High unemployment rates (for both workers and investors) and low demand from consumers are signs of a depression (as a percentage of total output). Businesses have to cut back and lay off workers because there is less demand for their goods and services.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Characteristics will Give Firms, Greater Sensitivity to the Business Cycle?

Firms that sell capital goods and durable consumer goods tend to be more affected by changes in the economy. When the economy is doing well, people are more likely to buy big things like cars and refrigerators. When the economy is doing poorly, they may put off big purchases like these for a while.

What are the Various Characteristics of a Trade Cycle?

A trade cycle includes periods of good commerce, marked by rising prices and low unemployment rates. Another sign of a bad economy is when prices are declining and unemployment rates are high.

How does the Business Cycle Affect Consumers?

What customers buy is a reflection of the business cycle. Consumer spending often declines when unemployment rises and consumers have less discretionary income. In contrast, when incomes rise and unemployment rates decline during an expansion, consumer spending rises.


Samuelson says that both outside and inside factors can cause business cycles. The economy is affected by the outside world and the world affects the economy. The production of capital goods and the jobs related to them will change more than the production of consumer goods. We’re going to take a look at the characteristics of business cycle and discuss related matters in this topic.

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